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Fishermen from both countries have been jailed and attacked for straying across the maritime border.
26 representatives from India and 20 from Sri Lanka are participating in Monday’s meeting, official sources said.
The meeting is being presided over by Tamil Nadu Fisheries Minister K.A. Jayapal.
The meet is expected to focus on preventing Indian and Sri Lankan fishermen from poaching in each other’s territorial waters.
Both sides have exchanged detained fishermen earlier this month in a bid to ease tensions. 52 Sri Lankan fishermen were released to Colombo while 51 Indian fishermen were handed over to New Delhi.
This was one of the several confidence building measures undertaken by the two sides.
Bilateral trade in 2013 stood at $4 billion. Meanwhile, a $650 million northern railway project in northern Tamil Nadu is being funded by a line of credit by the Indian government.
A tripartite agreement on maritime cooperation was signed last summer by India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.